Značilnosti makrofitov in njihova vloga v vodnih ekosistemih / Characteristics of macrophytes and their role in aquatic ecosystems
Makrofiti so rastline vodnih ekosistemov, ki jih vidimo s prostim očesom. Rastejo v vodi ali njeni neposredni bližini, in so lahko plavajoči in ukoreninjeni v substrat, prosto plavajoči, potopljeni in močvirski. V to skupino uvrščamo tudi makroalge, kot sta Chara in Nittella. Vodni makrofiti so zelo pomemben del vodnih ekosistemov. Na življenje v vodnem okolju so prilagojeni tako na morfološkem kot tudi na fiziološkem nivoju. Makrofiti so hrana za številne ribe in druge vodne živali ter predstavljajo življenjski prostor številnih vrst. Makrofiti varujejo rečne bregove pred erozijo. Privzemajo hranila in s tem vplivajo na kakovost vode. Značilnosti vodnih okolij, ki vplivajo na rast makrofitov, so svetloba, temperatura, hitrost toka, globina vode, vrsta sedimenta, kemizem vode in biološke interakcije.
Ključne besede: značilnosti makrofitov, amfibijske rastline, helofiti, vodni ekosistemi
Macrophytes are aquatic plants that can be seen by the unaided eye in water ecosystems. They grow in or near water and can be emergent (helophytes), submergent, or floating. Term includes the macroalgae like Chara and Nittella. Aquatic macrophytes are very important to healthy aquatic ecosystems. Macrophytes can be categorized based on where and how they grow in water. They are adapted to aquatic conditions on morphological and physiological level. Macrophytes provide a source of food for fish and wildlife and habitat for many species. They protect river banks from wave action and erosion. They absorb nutrients from the water and affect the quality of water. Characteristics of water environment that affect the growing of macrophytes are light, temperature, current velocity, depth of the water, type of sediment, chemistry of water, and biological interactions.
Key words: properties of macrophytes, amphibious plants, helophytes, water ecosystems
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