Raziskava cemprina (Pinus cembra L.) na robnem vzhodnem območju Alp v Sloveniji / Research on the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) on the easternmost edge of the Alps in Slovenia
Raziskali smo edini znani domnevno avtohtoni nahajališči cemprina (Pinus cembra L.) v Sloveniji: pod Krnesom in pri Beli peči, obe v pogorju Smrekovca. Z napravo GPS smo določili lokacije osebkov cemprina, jih premerili, določili razdaljo do najbližjega sosednjega cemprina, ocenili zdravstveno stanje, z metodo izvrtkov določili starost dveh osebkov in zabeležili znake pomlajevanja. Nahajališči cemprinov v pogorju Smrekovca smo prikazali na geološki in pedološki karti, lokacije posameznih cemprinov pa na ortofoto posnetkih. Pod Krnesom smo zabeležili 12 cemprinov, pri Beli peči 4. Cemprini pri Beli peči so v povprečju višji in debelejši, verjetno tudi starejši. Starost dveh vzorčenih cemprinov pod Krnesom ocenjujemo na 76 in 91 let. Povprečni debelinski prirastek pri vzorčenem cemprinu na gozdnem robu je 1,97 mm/leto, pri osebku v sestoju pa 1,25 mm/leto. Pod Krnesom smo našli osebek mladja in na dveh osebkih opazili storže. Lahko gre za marginalno populacijo cemprina na njegovem robnem rastišču na skrajnem vzhodnem območju Alp v Sloveniji. Najpomembnejši argument proti samoniklosti je razporeditev 9 osebkov pod Krnesom ob deželni meji in frati. Zapisov o saditvi ni. Cemprini v pogorju Smrekovca naj tudi v prihodnje obdržijo status dendrološke naravne vrednote.
Ključne besede: cemprin, Pinus cembra L., avtohtonost, ohranjevanje genskega sklada, redka vrsta, marginalna populacija, Smrekovec, Slovenija, Alpe
This research studied the only two sites where the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) is considered to be native to Slovenia: one below Mount Krnes and one near Mount Bela Peč, both of which form part of the Smrekovec massif. The exact locations of individual trees were determined using a GPS device. The trees were measured and inspected in terms of health, and distances were calculated between the closest neighbouring trees. In addition, the age of two individuals was determined by increment boring and there were signs of rejuvenation. The two sites in the Smrekovec massif are indicated on bedrock and soil maps while the locations of individual Swiss stone pines are presented on ortophoto images. A total of 12 Swiss stone pines were found to grow below Mount Krnes and another 4 near Mount Bela Peč. The latter group of stone pines have greater mean diameters and heights and are probably older than the Krnes group of stone pines. The estimated ages of two trees from below Mount Krnes are 76 and 91 years. The individual growing on the edge of the forest has a mean annual increment of 1.97 mm, while the other one growing inside the forest has a mean annual increment of 1.25 mm. A Swiss stone pine seedling was found below Mount Krnes and cones could be observed on two individuals. The two sites are potentially home to marginal populations of the Swiss stone pine on the edge of its natural range in the easternmost part of the Alps in Slovenia. The most prominent argument against nativity is the distribution of the 9 individuals below Mount Krnes – it follows a regional border and the edge of a grassland. No planting records exist. The Swiss stone pines of the Smrekovec massif must retain their status as a dendrological site of natural interest.
Key words: Swiss stone pine, Pinus cembra L., autochthonity, gene pool conservation, rare species, marginal population, Smrekovec, Slovenia, Alps
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